The Satipatthana sutta - my desert island text
Buddhism is quite a big bowl of noodles to get your teeth into - I've spent a while skirting round the lists and trying to figure it out. After a time, I came across the Satipatthana sutta - the discourse of the establishment of mindfulness - and discovered that a huge amount of it is basically contained within this text. There's not many collections of words that cover as much as these words do - the experience of the body, of moments of feeling, the mind and different ways we can look at mental experience. I suspect you could spend a long time on a desert island with these words and have a profoundly interesting time.